Monthly Archives: November 2019

World Diabetes Day 2019

Today is World Diabetes Day, and our post today is the third in our series of diabetes topics this week. Today’s post looks at research on the Dietary Inflammatory Index.

Statistics on diabetes from the World Health Organization are startling, the number of people with diabetes worldwide in 2014 was four times higher than the number of those with diabetes in 1980. It is projected that the number of those with diabetes will increase by 48% by 2045. It is estimated that there are 425 million people with diabetes worldwide. The Marshall Islands have the highest prevalence of diabetes. In the U.S., West Virginia has the highest prevalence of diabetes. Research indicates that obesity, physical inactivity, and poor dietary choices are closely associated with the development of diabetes type 2.

The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed in 2009, as a way to measure the role of inflammation induced by diet and nutrition. The DII was updated in 2014. The index was designed to measure a particular individual’s diet with regard to it’s inflammatory potential. The effect of 45 different food and nutrient parameters on inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and c-reactive protein was analyzed, with inflammatory scores assigned based on extensive research.

A research group from the West Virginia University Department of Family Medicine recently looked at the relationship between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and the presence of diabetes in a sample of adults from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). In addition, they examined the relationship between DII and the severity of diabetes.

Over 4400 subjects from the NHANES (2013-2014) were included, 53.5% women and 46.5% men. The results were adjusted for age, alcohol use, BMI, gender, physical activity level, smoking status, and socioeconomic status.

The researchers discovered a significant association between the incidence of diabetes and Dietary Inflammatory Index scores, In addition, there was significant association between the severity of diabetes, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index scores.

High inflammatory diets have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease and arthritis. It should probably not surprise anyone that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher incidence of diabetes as well. The CDC estimates that nearly 1/4 of those with diabetes are not yet diagnosed. Perhaps future research will examine using the Dietary Inflammatory Index to identify those at higher risk for developing diabetes, so that a dietary intervention could be implemented.

Diabetes is one of the leading causes of vision loss among those age 20 and older, and is also one of the leading causes of kidney failure. Perhaps the best way to recognize World Diabetes Day is to carefully consider what one’s daily diet is comprised of, and make some changes going forward to lower the inflammatory potential of the diet. If you are overweight, or have a family history of diabetes, take the step of getting tested for diabetes. 

“I think I can wipe out diabetes.”–  Robert Atkins

(Source- Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2019;32:801-806)

This blog is a review of published medical and scientific literature, and should only be used for informational purposes. It does not constitute medical or health advice, nor does it create a physician-patient relationship with anyone. Discuss any health concerns with your personal physician.

 

 

Fruit Helps Prevent Diabetes Type 2

November 14th is designated as World Diabetes Day, and in recognition of this our posts this week will review topics related to diabetes. Today’s post will examine the role of fruit in the diet, and subsequent development of diabetes.

Statistics from the World Health Organization regarding diabetes are quite startling. Well over 400 million adults worldwide suffer from diabetes. Global prevalence of diabetes is over 8%. Diabetes is estimated to be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide.

Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health tackled the question of whether certain types of fruits are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data from the Nurse’s Health Study, the Nurses Health Study II, and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study was used for their research.

The participants were queried about their intake of individual fruits- apricots, peaches or plums; apples or pears; bananas, blueberries, cantelope, grapes or raisins; grapefruit; oranges; and strawberries. Participants were also questioned about fruit juices, including apple, grapefruit, and orange. The questionnaires were given at baseline, and then every two years in follow-up.

The results of the study were interesting. Total whole fruit intake was associated with a lower risk of diabetes. In particular, greater consumption of apples, bananas, blueberries, grapes and grapefruit were significantly associated with a decreased risk of diabetes. Conversely, increased fruit juice consumption was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, and switching from fruit juice to whole fruit in general led to a lower risk of diabetes. Even more interesting was the fact that the glycemic index alone did not seem to account for the association with Type 2 diabetes. 

Proper diet and regular exercise are two of the most important components of diabetes treatment. It appears incorporating fruit into the diet may be a strategy for prevention of diabetes as well.

“Fruit is definitely on the maintenance diet. It’s on the lifestyle diet.”– Robert Atkins

(Source- BMJ 2013; 347:15001)

This blog is a review of published medical and scientific literature, and should only be used for informational purposes. It does not constitute medical or health advice, nor does it create a physician-patient relationship with anyone. Discuss any health concerns with your personal physician.

Mediterranean Diet Helps Prevent Diabetes

November 14th is World Diabetes Day, and in recognition of this day several posts this week will discuss diabetes. Today’s post will examine the effects of a particular diet on the development of diabetes.

Statistics from the CDC paint a grim picture. Over 9% of Americans have diabetes. About 1 1/2 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes each year. What is even more disturbing is that it is estimated that over 84 million have prediabetes, which puts them at much higher risk for developing full-blown diabetes. It is estimated that about 70% of those with prediabetes eventually develop diabetes. The direct and indirect costs of diabetes in 2012 were estimated at $245 billion. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S.

More evidence of the benefits of a Mediterranean-style diet was demonstrated in a study performed primarily in Spain. In this particular study, results showed a significant protective effect from developing diabetes by following a Mediterranean-type diet, supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and mixed nuts. The study was performed in a high risk group of men and women with risk factors such as history of smoking, high blood pressure, overweight, and high cholesterol.

Approximately 3500 subjects were enrolled in the study, and were followed for an average of 4 years. A 40% relative risk reduction in diabetes was found in the Mediterranean diet group supplemented with olive oil, while a 18% diabetes risk reduction was found in the Mediterranean group supplemented with mixed nuts. 

The Mediterranean Diet concept stems from the traditional dietary practices of Greece, Southern Italy, Portugal and Spain. The diet consists of moderate to high consumption of fish, high consumption of olive oil, fruits and vegetables, and moderate consumption of dairy products. What is missing from the Mediterranean diet is also important. Food items such as red and processed meat, refined cereals, fast foods and sodas are very limited in a Mediterranean diet.

Given the significant and often overwhelming health problems associated with diabetes, perhaps more serious consideration should be given to simple dietary modifications as a strategy for prevention.

“Insulin is not a cure for diabetes, it is a treatment”.–  Frederick Grant Banting

(Source- Annals of Internal Medicine: 2014; 160)

This blog is a review of published medical and scientific literature, and should only be used for informational purposes. It does not constitute medical or health advice, nor does it create a physician-patient relationship with anyone. Discuss any health concerns with your personal physician.